The addition or exchange of cheaper fish species instead of more expensive fish species is a known form of fraud in the food industry. This can take place accidentally due to the lack of expertise or actively as fraud.

Generally speaking, this form of fraud is not a problem in terms of food safety but quality. Incorrect labeling (e.g. frozen fillets) is undesired by consumers and industrial processors and results in increased costs.

For reasons of transparency for consumers, it is mandatory to label fish species with the trade name (in the respective national language) as well as the scientific name. This is defined in the EU Directive No. 1379/2013, chapter IV, article 35. Furthermore, there is the labeling requirement with regard to fishing zones, form of fishing and processing.

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