The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an antibody-based test method. This widespread technology is sensitive, fast and reliable.

With their ELISA test kits, R-Biopharm relies on a well-established analytical method that meets the requirements of modern laboratories. RIDASCREEN® tests show a high sensitivity and are characterized by robustness. For the time-sensitive screening of various commodities, RIDASCREEN®FAST tests are offered. These tests enable to analyze food and feed samples within a maximum of 30 min including sample preparation.

ELISA principle

Antibodies are proteins produced in plasma cells of vertebrates as part of the adaptive immune system against structures (antigens) which are recognized as foreign to the body. Antibodies bind to their antigens by a distinct pattern of ionic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bridge linkages and Van-der Waals forces. The interaction between antibody and its antigen is selective and highly specific, similar to a lock and key.

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is based on this selective and specific antibody-antigen recognition. Many formats of qualitative or quantitative ELISA tests have been established. Performing an ELISA test involves at least one specific antibody for a particular antigen. A main principle is that one of these immunological components is immobilized to a solid phase, the cavities of a microtiter plate. The analyte from the sample interacts with the antibody-antigen system. This interaction can be visualized by enzymes, linked to secondary antibodies or antigens, and indicate if an antibody-antigen binding has occurred. An added substrate is converted by the coupled enzyme resulting in a change of colour, which can be measured with a spectrophotometer.

Sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA

While a sandwich ELISA detects only intact proteins and large fragments with at least two binding sites, a competitive ELISA is able to detect large and small protein fragments with only one binding site. For this reason, the competitive ELISA can also be used for highly processed food products.

Good ELISA practice

The manual provides a comprehensive overview for both – beginners and advanced analysts, in order to improve the quality of performed ELISA analysis. It represents a guideline which will help you to establish reasonable framework conditions and conditions of use, which shall be complied with to achieve the best possible performance when using R-Biopharm ELISA test kits.

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